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The Pet Cancer Foundation’s Website Editorial team is comprised of veterinarians, veterinary oncologists, and veterinary technicians, as well as scientific writers and editors who have attained their PhD’s in the life sciences, along with general editors and research assistants. All content found in this section goes through an extensive process with multiple review stages, to ensure this extended resource provides the pet family with the most up-to-date information publicly available.

The team listing of those contributing to the information on this page is here:

Keep Your Pets Healthy Editorial Team

Last Updated: August 4, 2021


The Pet Cancer Foundation’s medical resource for pet owners is protected by copyright.

For reprint requests, please see our Content Usage Policy.


The Pet Cancer Foundation’s Medical Illustration team is comprised of medical illustration specialists that work in consultation with our team of experts, to create the medical art found throughout our website. Though not all medical concepts require the assistance of imagery, when a page does contain a medical illustration, credit to the artist will be noted here.

The Illustrator responsible for the medical art on this page is: Dino Pulera

Medical Art Director: Dino Pulera

Last Updated: August 4, 2021


The Pet Cancer Foundation’s medical imagery is protected by copyright and cannot be used without prior approval that includes a signed licensing agreement. Please review our Content Usage Policy.

The following sources were referenced to write the content on this page:  (EXAMPLE ONLY TO BE REPLACED)

Abercrombie, M & Ambrose, E J 1962, ‘The surface properties of cancer cells: a review’, Cancer Res, vol. 22, pp. 525-48.

Gupta, G P & Massagué, J 2006, ‘Cancer Metastasis: Building a framework’ Cell, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 679-695.

Hiyama, E Kodama, T Shinbara, K Iwao, T Itoh, M Hiyama, K Shaw, J W Matsuura, Y & Yokoyama, T 1997, ‘Telomerase activity is detected in pancreatic cancer but not in benign tumors’, Can. Res., vol. 57, no 2.

Joyce, J A & Pollard, J W 2009, ‘Microenvironmental regulation of metastasis’, Nat. Rev. Cancer, vol. 9, pp.239–252.

Volpe, J P G 1988, ‘Genetic instability of cancer: Why a metastatic tumor is unstable and a benign tumour is stable’, Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 125-134.


The Pet Cancer Foundation’s medical resource for pet owners is protected by copyright.

For reprint requests, please see our Content Usage Policy.